20 U.S. and Texas Constitutions

  • ​A The principles and ideas of the U.S. Constitution are also present in the Texas Constitution of 1876

  • B The Main difference between the two is the Texas Constitution has more details and specifics increasing it's size dramatically over the U.S. Constitution

The Civil War

  • F Limited Government

    • ​1 Members of the government are held to the same laws as everyone else
    • ​2 limiting the power of the government over the people
  • G Individual Rights
    • ​1 Personal liberties and priveleges that people are born with and cannot be taken away
      • ​a inalienable rights
    • ​2 Listed in the Bill of Rights
      • ​a Freedom of Speech, Religion, the press, assembly, and petition
      • b Right to own and carry guns
      • c Rights of the accused
      • d Right to a trial by jury
      • e Protection from cruel and unusual punishment
      • ​Protection against unreasonable search and siezure

Government and

The Consitution

19 Amendments 13, 14, & 15

  • ​A Amendment 13 officially frees all of the slaves in the entire United States

    • ​December 6, 1865
  • B Juneteenth is a celebration marking the 19th of June 1866 when word of the 13th amendment reached Texas and the slaves in Texas were freed
  • C Federalism

    • ​1 How the national, state, and local governments work together
    • 2 All can pass and enforce laws
    • ​3 The higher level of government trumps the lower
    • 4 States cannot pass a law that conflicts with National law
  • 2 Legislative Checks

    • ​a Approve appointments made in the executive branch
    • b Approve appointments to the judicial branch
    • c Can override a Presidential Veto with enough support
  • 3 Executive Checks
    • ​a Can veto laws passed by the Legislature
    • b Appoints members of the Judicial branch
  • 4 Judicial Checks
    • ​a Can declare executive orders unconstitutional
    • ​b Can declare laws unconsituttional

16 Texas Battles of the Civil War

  • ​A Battle of Galveston

    • ​​Texans recapture Galveston from the Union
  • ​B Battle of Sabine Pass
    • ​Texans stop Union attempt to capture Houston
  • ​C Battle of Mansfield
    • ​Largest battle of the Red River Campaign
  • D Battle of Palmito Ranch
    • ​Very last battle of the Civil War, fought after the war ended at Appomattox
    • Slow communication kept soldiers in Texas from knowing that the war had ended

6 Confederate States of America

  • ​A Shortly after Lincoln wins the election of 1860 7 states secede and form the CSA
  • ​B Those states included South Carolina (First), Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas
  • C They believed the Federal Government should not interfere with state's decisions and state's rights

21 The 7 Principles of the Constitution

  • ​A Popular Sovereignty

    • ​1 Power from the People
    • 2 The people are the government
    • ​3 People vote on issues
  • B Republicanism
    • ​1 People elect someone to represent them
    • ​2 Senators and House of Representatives

14 Lincoln Assassinated


  • A 15 April 1865; Shot by John Wilkes Booth
    B Ford's Theater, Washington, DC
    C Without Lincoln's leadership overcoming the Civil War was very difficult
    D Northerners wanted revenge

17 Effects of the Civil War on Texas

  • ​A Cotton Production declined in Texas during the Civil War

  • B Farms instead grew more food crops such as wheat and corn to feed Confederate soldiers
  • ​C After the Civil War most former enslaved African Americans in Texas began making a living as sharecroppers
  • B John Bell Hood commanded groups of Texas infanrty that fought back east during the Civil War
    • ​Called Hood's Texas Brigade
  • D John Reagan: Texan who served as the Post Master General of the Confederacy

Republic of Texas

9 Emancipation Proclomation

  • ​A Freed slaves in southern states that were rebelling against the union

  • B Did not free all slaves (Am 13)
  • ​C Also allows African American men to join the Union Army
  • D Gives Union army authority to free slaves they encounter in the South
  • D Separation of Power

    • ​1 Legislative branch
      • ​a Creates laws
    • 2 Executive branch
      • ​a Enforces the law
    • 3 Judicial Branch
      • ​a Hears legal cases and ensure the law is followed 
  • E Checks and Balances
    • ​1 How each branch of government has power over the other two to ensure they cannot abuse their power

4 Compromises


  • ​A Compromises were made to try and please everyone
  • B To keep power balanced between slave and free states
  • C 1820 Missouri Compromise made Missouri slave and Maine Free
  • D Compromise of 1850 Made California a free state to balance out Texas

22 Levels of Government

  • A National (Federal)
    • ​1 Negotiates treaties with other nations
    • 2 Maintains the military and defends the country
  • ​B State 
         ​1 Regulates speed limits on the roads
         2 Regulates education
                ​​a The State Board of Education consists of elected board      

  •             members and provides standards and policies for education​

Reconstruction

15 Texans and the Civil War

  • ​A Sam Houston was Governor of Texas right before the Civil War but he was removed from office when he refused to pledge loyalty to the Confederacy

13 Appomattox Courthouse


  • ​A April 9, 1865
  • B Robert E Lee (South) surrenders to Ulysses S Grant (North)
  • ​C Civil War ends
  • C Amendment 14 declared that everyone born in the United States was a citizen and protected by the Constitution even if they had previously been a slave

    • ​July 28, 1868

  • D Amendment 15 gave black men the right to vote
    • ​​February 3, 1870
    • The Texas Constitution of 1876 expanded voting rights by allowing all men regardless of race were allowed to vote

7 Fort Sumter

  • ​A First military conflict of the Civil War
  • B Union (U.S.) military fort that was in the South because SC seceded
  • C Attacked by Confederates
  • D Union soldiers took cover and waited out the bombardment until they got a chance to leave
  • E Francis Lubbock: Confederate governor of Texas during the Civil War
  • ​F Thomas Green led soldiers in the Red River Campaign, killed at the Battle of Mansfield
  • ​G John Magruder led Texan forces at the Battle of Galveston
  • H Sul Ross: General in the Confederate Army and 19th governor of Texas 

C County

​​     1 Provide County law enforcement

D City (Local or Municipal)

​     1 Local city governments have the responsibility of providing       police and fire protections as well as establishing zoning      

      rules for construction

E Property and sales taxes help fund the state and local governments in Texas

10 Turning Point Battles

  • ​A Battle of Vicksburg divides the Confederate Army at the Mississippi River and makes them easier to defeat

  • B Battle of Gettysburg Turns back General Lee's invasion of the North

1 Road to the Civil War


  • ​A Compromises over the issue of slavery would build tensions between the North and South before the Civil War


To Know Who You Are and who you want to be

18 Reconstruction

  • ​A Costs of the War

    • ​1 $71 Billion in today's dollars ($5B)
    • 2 620,000 Americans killed
  • B Focus of Reconstruction
    • ​​1 1865-1877
    • ​2 U.S. Army stationed in the South act as government
    • ​3 Rebuild war torn states
    • ​4 Restore southern state governments
    • ​5 Secure rights of African Americans

2 Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement


  • ​A Slavery is holding someone against their will and forcing them to do as you want, usually laboring
  • B Africans were sold into slavery and taken across the Atlantic ocean to the New World to work on plantation farms
  • ​C That relocation of Africans is known as African Diaspora
  • F Harriet Tubman
    • ​1 Runaway slave
    • 2 returned to the south and helped other slaves escape
    • 3 Underground railroad
    • ​4 She made 19 trips back and forth from the south helping over 300 slaves escape

3 Sectionalism


  • ​A North
    • ​1 Industrial
    • 2 Slavery was a moral issue

11 Gettysburg Address


  • ​A Lincoln gives a very short speech at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
  • B Lincoln says the North cannot give up or all the people that died here died for nothing​

8 First Battle of Bull Run

  • ​A First major battle of the war

  • B Union expects to win quickly and end the conflict

  • C Unexpected Confederate victory

  • D The Abolitionist Movement was trying to end or abolish slavery
  • E Frederick Douglass
    • 1​ Born a slave in Maryland
    • 2 Ran away (Stole himself)
    • 3 Wrote The North Star (Abolitionist News Paper) and spoke out against slavery, told his story,  encouraged including former slaves in the Union Army​

5 Bleeding Kansas

  • ​A Kansas Territory would use Popular Sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery
  • ​B Lots of people move to the territory to be a part of the vote
  • C  Years of violent bloody gang like fighting breaks out between pro and anti slavery groups of people

12 March to the Sea


  • ​A William Tecumseh Sherman Union General
  • ​B Marches his army from Atlanta to Savannah destroying everything in its path
  • ​C Not only wants to destroy the enemy but also anything they could use to support themselves or rebuild
  • D Burns down Atlanta, burns fields of crops, destroys machinery, cuts telegraph lines, burns telegraph poles and railroad ties, melts railroad tracks
  • D Strategy is called Total War
  • B South
    • ​1 Agricultural
    • ​2 Slavery was an economic issue
      • ​a They needed it to maintain their way of life