• C Federalism

    • ​1 How the national, state, and local governments work together
    • 2 All can pass and enforce laws
    • ​3 The higher level of government trumps the lower
    • 4 States cannot pass a law that conflicts with National law
  • 2 Legislative Checks

    • ​a Approve appointments made in the executive branch
    • b Approve appointments to the judicial branch
    • c Can override a Presidential Veto with enough support
  • 3 Executive Checks
    • ​a Can veto laws passed by the Legislature
    • b Appoints members of the Judicial branch
  • 4 Judicial Checks
    • ​a Can declare executive orders unconstitutional
    • ​b Can declare laws unconsituttional

22 Levels of Government

  • A National (Federal)
    • ​1 Negotiates treaties with other nations
    • 2 Maintains the military and defends the country
  • ​B State 
         ​1 Regulates speed limits on the roads
         2 Regulates education
                ​​a The State Board of Education consists of elected board      

  •             members and provides standards and policies for education​

16 Texas Battles of the Civil War

  • ​A Battle of Galveston

    • ​​Texans recapture Galveston from the Union
  • ​B Battle of Sabine Pass
    • ​Texans stop Union attempt to capture Houston
  • ​C Battle of Mansfield
    • ​Largest battle of the Red River Campaign
  • D Battle of Palmito Ranch
    • ​Very last battle of the Civil War, fought after the war ended at Appomattox
    • Slow communication kept soldiers in Texas from knowing that the war had ended

18 Reconstruction

  • ​A Costs of the War

    • ​1 $71 Billion in today's dollars ($5B)
    • 2 620,000 Americans killed
  • B Focus of Reconstruction
    • ​​1 1865-1877
    • ​2 U.S. Army stationed in the South act as government
    • ​3 Rebuild war torn states
    • ​4 Restore southern state governments
    • ​5 Secure rights of African Americans
  • D Separation of Power

    • ​1 Legislative branch
      • ​a Creates laws
    • 2 Executive branch
      • ​a Enforces the law
    • 3 Judicial Branch
      • ​a Hears legal cases and ensure the law is followed 
  • E Checks and Balances
    • ​1 How each branch of government has power over the other two to ensure they cannot abuse their power

6 Confederate States of America

  • ​A Shortly after Lincoln wins the election of 1860 7 states secede and form the CSA
  • ​B Those states included South Carolina (First), Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Texas
  • C They believed the Federal Government should not interfere with state's decisions and state's rights
  • F Harriet Tubman
    • ​1 Runaway slave
    • 2 returned to the south and helped other slaves escape
    • 3 Underground railroad
    • ​4 She made 19 trips back and forth from the south helping over 300 slaves escape

10 Turning Point Battles

  • ​A Battle of Vicksburg divides the Confederate Army at the Mississippi River and makes them easier to defeat

  • B Battle of Gettysburg Turns back General Lee's invasion of the North

7 Fort Sumter

  • ​A First military conflict of the Civil War
  • B Union (U.S.) military fort that was in the South because SC seceded
  • C Attacked by Confederates
  • D Union soldiers took cover and waited out the bombardment until they got a chance to leave

1 Road to the Civil War


  • ​A Compromises over the issue of slavery would build tensions between the North and South before the Civil War

12 March to the Sea


  • ​A William Tecumseh Sherman Union General
  • ​B Marches his army from Atlanta to Savannah destroying everything in its path
  • ​C Not only wants to destroy the enemy but also anything they could use to support themselves or rebuild
  • D Burns down Atlanta, burns fields of crops, destroys machinery, cuts telegraph lines, burns telegraph poles and railroad ties, melts railroad tracks
  • D Strategy is called Total War


To Know Who You Are and who you want to be

  • B South
    • ​1 Agricultural
    • ​2 Slavery was an economic issue
      • ​a They needed it to maintain their way of life

20 U.S. and Texas Constitutions

  • ​A The principles and ideas of the U.S. Constitution are also present in the Texas Constitution of 1876

  • B The Main difference between the two is the Texas Constitution has more details and specifics increasing it's size dramatically over the U.S. Constitution
  • E Francis Lubbock: Confederate governor of Texas during the Civil War
  • ​F Thomas Green led soldiers in the Red River Campaign, killed at the Battle of Mansfield
  • ​G John Magruder led Texan forces at the Battle of Galveston
  • H Sul Ross: General in the Confederate Army and 19th governor of Texas 

Reconstruction

15 Texans and the Civil War

  • ​A Sam Houston was Governor of Texas right before the Civil War but he was removed from office when he refused to pledge loyalty to the Confederacy

2 Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement


  • ​A Slavery is holding someone against their will and forcing them to do as you want, usually laboring
  • B Africans were sold into slavery and taken across the Atlantic ocean to the New World to work on plantation farms
  • ​C That relocation of Africans is known as African Diaspora

13 Appomattox Courthouse


  • ​A April 9, 1865
  • B Robert E Lee (South) surrenders to Ulysses S Grant (North)
  • ​C Civil War ends
  • D The Abolitionist Movement was trying to end or abolish slavery
  • E Frederick Douglass
    • 1​ Born a slave in Maryland
    • 2 Ran away (Stole himself)
    • 3 Wrote The North Star (Abolitionist News Paper) and spoke out against slavery, told his story,  encouraged including former slaves in the Union Army​

5 Bleeding Kansas

  • ​A Kansas Territory would use Popular Sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery
  • ​B Lots of people move to the territory to be a part of the vote
  • C  Years of violent bloody gang like fighting breaks out between pro and anti slavery groups of people

4 Compromises


  • ​A Compromises were made to try and please everyone
  • B To keep power balanced between slave and free states
  • C 1820 Missouri Compromise made Missouri slave and Maine Free
  • D Compromise of 1850 Made California a free state to balance out Texas

14 Lincoln Assassinated


  • A 15 April 1865; Shot by John Wilkes Booth
    B Ford's Theater, Washington, DC
    C Without Lincoln's leadership overcoming the Civil War was very difficult
    D Northerners wanted revenge

3 Sectionalism


  • ​A North
    • ​1 Industrial
    • 2 Slavery was a moral issue

17 Effects of the Civil War on Texas

  • ​A Cotton Production declined in Texas during the Civil War

  • B Farms instead grew more food crops such as wheat and corn to feed Confederate soldiers
  • ​C After the Civil War most former enslaved African Americans in Texas began making a living as sharecroppers
  • B John Bell Hood commanded groups of Texas infanrty that fought back east during the Civil War
    • ​Called Hood's Texas Brigade
  • D John Reagan: Texan who served as the Post Master General of the Confederacy

Republic of Texas

9 Emancipation Proclomation

  • ​A Freed slaves in southern states that were rebelling against the union

  • B Did not free all slaves (Am 13)
  • ​C Also allows African American men to join the Union Army
  • D Gives Union army authority to free slaves they encounter in the South

11 Gettysburg Address


  • ​A Lincoln gives a very short speech at the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
  • B Lincoln says the North cannot give up or all the people that died here died for nothing​

8 First Battle of Bull Run

  • ​A First major battle of the war

  • B Union expects to win quickly and end the conflict

  • C Unexpected Confederate victory

The Civil War

  • F Limited Government

    • ​1 Members of the government are held to the same laws as everyone else
    • ​2 limiting the power of the government over the people
  • G Individual Rights
    • ​1 Personal liberties and priveleges that people are born with and cannot be taken away
      • ​a inalienable rights
    • ​2 Listed in the Bill of Rights
      • ​a Freedom of Speech, Religion, the press, assembly, and petition
      • b Right to own and carry guns
      • c Rights of the accused
      • d Right to a trial by jury
      • e Protection from cruel and unusual punishment
      • ​Protection against unreasonable search and siezure

C County

​​     1 Provide County law enforcement

D City (Local or Municipal)

​     1 Local city governments have the responsibility of providing       police and fire protections as well as establishing zoning      

      rules for construction

E Property and sales taxes help fund the state and local governments in Texas

Government and

The Consitution

  • C Amendment 14 declared that everyone born in the United States was a citizen and protected by the Constitution even if they had previously been a slave

    • ​July 28, 1868

  • D Amendment 15 gave black men the right to vote
    • ​​February 3, 1870
    • The Texas Constitution of 1876 expanded voting rights by allowing all men regardless of race were allowed to vote

21 The 7 Principles of the Constitution

  • ​A Popular Sovereignty

    • ​1 Power from the People
    • 2 The people are the government
    • ​3 People vote on issues
  • B Republicanism
    • ​1 People elect someone to represent them
    • ​2 Senators and House of Representatives

19 Amendments 13, 14, & 15

  • ​A Amendment 13 officially frees all of the slaves in the entire United States

    • ​December 6, 1865
  • B Juneteenth is a celebration marking the 19th of June 1866 when word of the 13th amendment reached Texas and the slaves in Texas were freed