20 War Starts With Mexico

  • ​A Mexico is upset with the United States for annexing Texas because they refused to admit it was no longer their territory
  • ​B After a border dispute orchestrated by President Polk Mexico attacks American soldiers and start the war
  • B First U.S. Senators from Texas

    • ​1 Thomas J Rusk

      • served 12 years

    • 2 Sam Houston

      • served 14 years

22 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

  • ​A The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican American War
  • B The treaty set the southern boundary of Texas at the Rio Grande
  • ​C The treaty also included the Mexican Cession which included the rest of the American West from Texas to California
  • H His struggles were very similar to those faced by George Washington as the First President of the United States
  • I Washington and the U.S. still had trouble with the British after the Revolutionary War
  • J There was a great amount of debt owed to France for their help in the war
  • K Native tribes in the Northwest Territories fought with American settlers

10 Relations with Mexico

  • ​A Lamar sent the Texas Navy to the Yucatan Peninsula to help rebels there fight against Mexico
  • ​​B Lamar also sent the Santa Fe Expedition in to New Mexico to try and convince the people there to become Texans and to push the western boundary of Texas further out

2 Trouble with Mexico

  • ​A Despite the Treaty of Velasco, Mexico refused to recognize the Independence of Texas
  • B This made it harder for Texas to build their own diplomatic relations with other countries
  • C As president of Texas, Sam Houston wanted to pay off those war debts so that Texas would be respected by the United States
  • ​D Sam Houston opposed creating a Navy for Texas because he knew it would cost too much money and make it impossbile to pay their debts

21 The Mexican American War

  • ​A The War lasted about a year and a half
  • B It was dominated by the United States
  • C The U.S. fought all the way to Mexico City and took it over
  • D In exchange for the Mexican Cession The united States goes home and does not occupy or claim Mexico

Republic of Texas

15 Mier Expedition

  • ​A Mexican troops attacked San Antonio and took 67 hostages on the 11th of September 1842
  • B ​Sam Houston sent a militia to fight back and retrieve the hostages
  • C The Mexican soldiers crossed the Rio Grande back in to Mexico before the Texans could catch them

Early Statehood

4 Trouble with Natives

  • ​A Native Texans stayed out of the Texas Revolution but they were troubled by the massive influx of Anglo-American settlers
  • B The Texas Rangers served citizens of the Republic of Texas
  • C The Texas Rangers defended Texans against Native American Attacks

To Know Who You Are and who you want to be

  • D Texans arranged a meeting with Comanche Natives to peacefully discuss relations and exchange captives
  • E The Comanche showed up with out weapons out of respect for the peaceful intention of the meeting
  • F Texans became angry with the Natives be cause they did not bring all the captives Texans expected
  • G The Texans slaughtered the unarmed natives in what became know as the Council House Fight.

6 Election of 1838

  • ​A The Texas Constitution limited the President of Texas to a two year term and prevented any President from serving consecutive terms in office
  • B So in 1838 another election was held to choose the 2nd President of Texas, Mirabeau Lamar

12 Education

  • ​A Lamar is known as the Father of Education in Texas
  • ​B Lamar believed a strong system of education could make Texas a great nation
  • C Lamar set aside ​land in Texas for public schools​
  • F The Texas militia stopped in the Mexican town of Mier to get more supplies
  • ​G While in Mier they were captured and then taken South to Mexico city
  • C Legislative Branch

    • ​1 Makes laws

    • ​2 Two house legislature like the U.S.

19 First State Governor and Senators

  • ​A James Pinckney Henderson first Governor of Texas
    • 1 Recruited soldiers for the Texas Army during RoT
    • ​2 Sam Houston's attorney general during RoT
    • ​3 Negotiated treaty of annexation

13 Sam Houston Re-elected

  • ​A Houston tries to restore his idea of saving money
  • B Houston reduced the size of the Army and eliminated the Navy
  • ​C Houston also relocated the Capital to Washington on the Brazos claiming that Austin was too close to Mexico and vulnerable to attack
  • ​C The people of New Mexico were so uninterested that they told the Mexican authorities about the Santa Fe Expedition and had 
  • D The Texans were taken prisoner and kept in Mexico city for 8 months before they were released
  • H In Mexico City Santa Anna ordered that 1 in 10 of the captured Texans be executed
  • ​I The Texan prisoners picked beans from a pot, those who picked out a white bean were allowed to live and those who got a black bean were shot. 
  • ​J The remaining prisoners were realeased over a year later

9 Clashes with Natives

  • ​A Lamar did not like Native Texans and wanted to get rid of them
  • ​B Cherokee Natives joined forces with Tejanos to lead a rebellion against Texas in... you guessed it, the Nacogdoches area!, known as the Cordova Rebellion
  • C Lamar used soldiers to force the Cherokee out of East Texas and into Oklahoma​​
  • D The Texans hesitated at the border and did not cross in to Mexico
  • ​E After some fighting among them selves the Texans decided to pursue the Mexican army across the river
  • E David Burnett served as the interim Texas President before elections could be held
  • F Sam Houston was the first elected president of Texas
  • G Sam Houston would have to deal with problems between Texas and Mexico, financial problems, and conflicts with Native Americans

7 Annexation Debate

  • ​A Many Texans wanted Texas to become a part of the United States because the deal would eliminate Texas debt to the U.S.
  • ​B Lots of them moved to Texas from the United States to accomplish that goal
  • D The primary reason the United States was hesitant to annex Texas because they feared it would start a war with Mexico

  • E The issue of slavery also prevented Texas from being annexed for so long
  • F Many people in the United States did not want to include such a largely populated state that supported slavery because it would effect the balance in the Congress
  • C Most of those settlers brought slaves to South and East Texas, the coastal plains region
  • D Slavery was a large barrier to the United States accepting Texas
  • ​E People in the U.S. were hesitant to include a state with such a large and influential population that supported and allowed slavery
  • C On July 4th 1845 61 Texans met to write a state constitution
    D Only two of those delegates were not immigrants from the U.S.
    E Jose Antonio Navarro was a native Tejano
    ​F James Powers was an Irish immigrant

  • G The Texas Constitution included a Bill of Rights to protect individual rights

3 Trouble with Money

  • ​A Texas incurred a lot of debt fighting for their independence
  • ​B Most of this debt was owed to the United States

14 Archive War

  • ​A The people of Austin refused to release the collection of the Texas Archive that was stored in Austin because it was the last thing they had to make them the Capital of Texas
  • B When the Texas Rangers showed up to retrieve the Archives they were chased away by cannon fire
  • C The Texas Rangers gave up to avoid any bloodshed

23 Compromise of 1850

  • ​A This compromise allows California to join the United States as a free (no slaves) state
  • B Part of the compromise also included forgiving the debts of Texas in exchange for the reduction of it's western boundary to the location it is today.

8 Mirabeau Lamar

  • ​A Lamar had different ideas about how Texas should be ran that conflicted with Sam Houston
  • Lamar was always looking for a fight with Mexico
  • Lamar increased the debt of Texas by funding military campaigns
  • ​The bold aggressive attitude that is associated with Texans is thought to be attributed to the policies of Mirabeau Lamar

17 State of Texas 

  • ​A The era of early statehood in Texas history includes an expansion in population
  • B The port of Houston was important to the growth in Texas
  • G After nine years of trying to convince the United States, Texas was finally annexed into the union in 1845 as the 28th State

  • D Today people are educated about life in the Republic of Texas by reading the journals of Mary Maverick who recorded her experiences
  • E Sam Houston had a good relationship with the Cherokee and he worked out a treaty with them that gave them land in East Texas in exchange for them staying out of the Texas Revolution
  • ​F The Texas Congress however after the war refused to ratify the treaty because they wanted the valuable farm land for themselves

11 Lamar Moves the Capital

  • ​A Lamar had the Texas Capital moved to the town of Waterloo, north of San Antonio
  • B That city was later renamed Austin in honor of Stephen F Austin

16 Annexation

  • ​A In 1844 Anson Jones was elected President of Texas and James Polk was elected President of the U.S. 
  • B Both were leaders of the Annexation movement
  • C Polk was a big believer in Manifest Destiny and it was a motivator for him to achieve annexation
  • C The population of Texas grows significantly during the 1840's

  • D Many German immigrants settle in Central Texas between Austin and San Antonio near todays towns of Fredricksburg and Gruene

1 The New Republic of Texas

  • ​A Texas granted rights and freedoms to Texas citizens with a Bill of Rights
  • B Freedom of religion was one of the most cherished rights of Texans after being limited to practicing the Catholic religion for so long​

5 New Country New Captial

  • ​A Today the Capital of Texas is Austin but it had previously been in other locations
  • B ​When the Republic of Texas was first founded the Capital was in the tiny town of Columbia Texas
  • C Once the town of Houston was established, Sam Houston relocated the Capital of Texas to Houston

18 3 Branches

  • A The Texas Constitution was similar to the U.S. Constitution by including three branches of government
  • B Executive Branch
    • ​1 Governor and Lieutenant Governor
    • 2 Enforce the law
  • D The Comanche were a tribe that had lots of conflicts with the Anglo-American settlers over territory
  • D Judicial Branch

    • ​1 Interprets the law

    • 2 Court System

    • ​3 Texas Supreme Court highest court in Texas

  • E People of Texas vote in elections and participate in government as a part of Popular Sovereignty