6 Texas Longhorns

  • ​A Known for their distinctive long horns which they used as protection from predators
  • ​B Known for their ability to adapt and survive in any environment
  • C Other Cattle Drive jobs
    • ​1 Wranglers kept track of spare horses that the cowboys rotated out to keep moving all day
    • ​2 The cook rode ahead of the herd with his Chuck Wagon
      • a ​He would set up camp and prepare dinner for the cowboys 
      • b He also got up long before sunrise to cook breakfast for the crew
      • ​c Cattle drive food included coffee, beef, and beans

2 Texas Farming


  • ​A Subsistence Farming 
    • ​1 Growing just what food you need to survive
    • 2 Not growing lots of crops to sell
    • 3 In the 13 English colonies (USA) most New England farmers were subsistence farmers​
  • F XIT Ranch
    • ​1 Ten (X) In Texas
    • 2 Ranch stretched over ten counties in panhandle
    • ​3 3 MILLION acres, the largest fenced ranch in the world, at the time

3 King Cotton


  • ​A Windmills helped Texas farmers pump water from the ground to irrigate crops
  • ​B Most cotton farms in Texas were located in the Coastal Plains region

I know this video is about Tennessee but cotton is the same in Texas

  • B Sharecroppers
    • ​​1 Also called Tenant Farmers
    • 2 Could not afford their own land to farm
    • 3 Shared their crops with the landlord as payment for the land
    • ​4 Never made enough money to pay off their land; stuck in an endless cycle of poverty
  • C Buffalo Soldiers helped keep the peace on the Western Frontier
    • ​1 They were a U.S. Army regiment of African American soldiers
    • ​2 They were known as the Buffalo Soldiers because their thick curly hair was similar to a buffalo
    • 3 ​Also they were fierce and fearless like the buffalo
  • B Cowboys had different positions and responsibilities on the trail
    • ​​1 Trail Boss was in charge and selected the route
    • 2 Foreman was the assistant to the trail boss
    • ​3 Pointers led the herd 
    • ​4 Wings rode along side the herd and kept them pushed in tight and did not let them spread too far
    • ​5 Flanks rode toward the rear and rounded up strays as well as cattle that wandered off
    • ​6 The Drag rode at the back of the herd and kept it moving forward
    • 7 Night herders circled the herd at night to protect it from predators

9 Barbed Wire

  • ​A ​Effective natural fencing materials like logs and thorny bushes inspired Joseph Glidden to invent barbed wire to help contain cattle in Illinois
  • D Cowboys on the cattle trail were always in danger of a stampede

11 Texas Railroad Commission

  • ​A Texas governor James Hogg worked to protect Texans from unfair business practices by supporting the creation of the Texas Railroad Commission
  • ​B The TRC initially regulated the Railroads but today also regulates oil, gas, and mining industries
  • D The Range Wars of the late 1800's were caused by ranchers fencing off land with barbed wire
  • E Cowboys cut fences to drive cattle and trespassed on other ranches where previously it hadn't been a problem
  • B The invention and use of barbed wire fencing to fence off ranches in Texas stopped the Cattle Drives 
  • ​C As railroads reached Texas the need to drive cattle north disappeared as well
  • C The lives of Texas farmers were dominated by tending to their cotton crops
  • ​D Texas towns often grew in areas with lots of cotton farms
  • ​E Many other businesses would grow to serve the needs of the cotton farmers
  • ​F If cotton crops failed so would the other businesses

10 Railroads

  • ​A James Watt (Englishman) invented the steam engine in 1698
  • B The first steam locomotives were invented in England in the early 1800's by Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson

Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads

  • ​C ​Railroads reached Texas around 1850 with the first one in the Houston area
  • D Railroads were built across Texas to help transport goods like cotton, cattle, and lumber to markets in Texas and back east
  • E Across Texas and the United States new towns sprung up along railroad lines

7 Cattle Drive

  • ​A ​Cattle drives began with a round up 
    • ​1 Cowboys rode the ranch and neighboring areas driving cows together in a group
    • ​2 All cattle were branded to prove ownership
    • 3 Branded cattle from other ranches would be driven away from the herd, stealing someone else's cattle was considered Rustling
    • ​4 The roundup would take several weeks

5 Open Range

  • ​A In the beginning of Texas Cattle ranches there was no available option to fence in the vast ranches
  • B Cattle were allowed to roam on the open range
  • ​C When a cattle owner was ready to drive cattle to market they had to be rounded up
  • ​D Open Range ranching led to a lot of conflict and cattle rustling

Have you seen any cotton fields in Texas?

4 Start of Cattle in Texas


  • ​A The demand for beef in the eastern states led to the settlement of the western frontier in Texas and the rapid growth of the cattle industry
  • ​B Cattle ranching was started in south Texas by the Spanish, then spread to West Texas
  • ​C West Texas was too dry, it lacked water resources, to support farming so ranching became the prominent industry

8 Cattle Trails

  • ​A ​The Shawnee Trail to Kansas City was one of the earliest cattle trails
  • B After the Civil War several new cattle trails were established to move cattle north out of Texas 

How does this picture reflect cotton, cattle, and railroads?


To Know Who You Are and who you want to be

What is your favorite food?  Would you be able to get it on the Catle Trail?

  • G King Ranch
    • ​​1 Started in South Texas 1853 by Captain Richard King
    • 2 Has grown to 825,000 acres
    • ​3 Running W Brand said to represent a diamond back rattle snake and the horns of the cattle
    • 4 Yes, just like the Ford truck (I don't know if the ranch is famous for breaking down as well)

1 Frontier Texas


  • ​A After the Civil War many American Indian tribes were moved to reservations
  • B Life on the Texas Frontier was characterized by cattle drives and fighting with Indians