To Know Who You Are and who you want to be

  • F XIT Ranch
    • ​1 Ten (X) In Texas
    • 2 Ranch stretched over ten counties in panhandle
    • ​3 3 MILLION acres, the largest fenced ranch in the world, at the time

3 King Cotton


  • ​A Windmills helped Texas farmers pump water from the ground to irrigate crops
  • ​B Most cotton farms in Texas were located in the Coastal Plains region

I know this video is about Tennessee but cotton is the same in Texas

What is your favorite food?  Would you be able to get it on the Catle Trail?

  • B Sharecroppers
    • ​​1 Also called Tenant Farmers
    • 2 Could not afford their own land to farm
    • 3 Shared their crops with the landlord as payment for the land
    • ​4 Never made enough money to pay off their land; stuck in an endless cycle of poverty
  • C Buffalo Soldiers helped keep the peace on the Western Frontier
    • ​1 They were a U.S. Army regiment of African American soldiers
    • ​2 They were known as the Buffalo Soldiers because their thick curly hair was similar to a buffalo
    • 3 ​Also they were fierce and fearless like the buffalo
  • D Cowboys on the cattle trail were always in danger of a stampede

11 Texas Railroad Commission

  • ​A Texas governor James Hogg worked to protect Texans from unfair business practices by supporting the creation of the Texas Railroad Commission
  • ​B The TRC initially regulated the Railroads but today also regulates oil, gas, and mining industries
  • C The lives of Texas farmers were dominated by tending to their cotton crops
  • ​D Texas towns often grew in areas with lots of cotton farms
  • ​E Many other businesses would grow to serve the needs of the cotton farmers
  • ​F If cotton crops failed so would the other businesses

10 Railroads

  • ​A James Watt (Englishman) invented the steam engine in 1698
  • B The first steam locomotives were invented in England in the early 1800's by Richard Trevithick and George Stephenson

Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads

Have you seen any cotton fields in Texas?

4 Start of Cattle in Texas


  • ​A The demand for beef in the eastern states led to the settlement of the western frontier in Texas and the rapid growth of the cattle industry
  • ​B Cattle ranching was started in south Texas by the Spanish, then spread to West Texas
  • ​C West Texas was too dry, it lacked water resources, to support farming so ranching became the prominent industry

How does this picture reflect cotton, cattle, and railroads?

6 Texas Longhorns

  • ​A Known for their distinctive long horns which they used as protection from predators
  • ​B Known for their ability to adapt and survive in any environment
  • C Other Cattle Drive jobs
    • ​1 Wranglers kept track of spare horses that the cowboys rotated out to keep moving all day
    • ​2 The cook rode ahead of the herd with his Chuck Wagon
      • a ​He would set up camp and prepare dinner for the cowboys 
      • b He also got up long before sunrise to cook breakfast for the crew
      • ​c Cattle drive food included coffee, beef, and beans

2 Texas Farming


  • ​A Subsistence Farming 
    • ​1 Growing just what food you need to survive
    • 2 Not growing lots of crops to sell
    • 3 In the 13 English colonies (USA) most New England farmers were subsistence farmers​
  • G King Ranch
    • ​​1 Started in South Texas 1853 by Captain Richard King
    • 2 Has grown to 825,000 acres
    • ​3 Running W Brand said to represent a diamond back rattle snake and the horns of the cattle
    • 4 Yes, just like the Ford truck (I don't know if the ranch is famous for breaking down as well)

1 Frontier Texas


  • ​A After the Civil War many American Indian tribes were moved to reservations
  • B Life on the Texas Frontier was characterized by cattle drives and fighting with Indians
  • B Cowboys had different positions and responsibilities on the trail
    • ​​1 Trail Boss was in charge and selected the route
    • 2 Foreman was the assistant to the trail boss
    • ​3 Pointers led the herd 
    • ​4 Wings rode along side the herd and kept them pushed in tight and did not let them spread too far
    • ​5 Flanks rode toward the rear and rounded up strays as well as cattle that wandered off
    • ​6 The Drag rode at the back of the herd and kept it moving forward
    • 7 Night herders circled the herd at night to protect it from predators

9 Barbed Wire

  • ​A ​Effective natural fencing materials like logs and thorny bushes inspired Joseph Glidden to invent barbed wire to help contain cattle in Illinois
  • D The Range Wars of the late 1800's were caused by ranchers fencing off land with barbed wire
  • E Cowboys cut fences to drive cattle and trespassed on other ranches where previously it hadn't been a problem
  • B The invention and use of barbed wire fencing to fence off ranches in Texas stopped the Cattle Drives 
  • ​C As railroads reached Texas the need to drive cattle north disappeared as well
  • ​C ​Railroads reached Texas around 1850 with the first one in the Houston area
  • D Railroads were built across Texas to help transport goods like cotton, cattle, and lumber to markets in Texas and back east
  • E Across Texas and the United States new towns sprung up along railroad lines

7 Cattle Drive

  • ​A ​Cattle drives began with a round up 
    • ​1 Cowboys rode the ranch and neighboring areas driving cows together in a group
    • ​2 All cattle were branded to prove ownership
    • 3 Branded cattle from other ranches would be driven away from the herd, stealing someone else's cattle was considered Rustling
    • ​4 The roundup would take several weeks

5 Open Range

  • ​A In the beginning of Texas Cattle ranches there was no available option to fence in the vast ranches
  • B Cattle were allowed to roam on the open range
  • ​C When a cattle owner was ready to drive cattle to market they had to be rounded up
  • ​D Open Range ranching led to a lot of conflict and cattle rustling

8 Cattle Trails

  • ​A ​The Shawnee Trail to Kansas City was one of the earliest cattle trails
  • B After the Civil War several new cattle trails were established to move cattle north out of Texas