20 Know  Nothing Party

  • 1840's - 1850's
  • Opposed immigrants and the Catholic Church
  • Considered themselves... natives!?!?!?

21 Factors contributing to migrating West

  • Transportation improvements
  • ​Available natural resources
  • Crowding population in the east
  • ​Available investment captial

22 Alexis de Tocqueville

  • French author, political thinker, and historian
  • Said the sectional differences in the United States were caused by differences of customs that emerge from different educational and democratic experiences

13 Pollution

  • A Steam power requires burning coal or wood to make fire to boil water and make steam
  • B The smoke from steam engines combines with smoke from cooking and heat fires
  • C ​Leads to massive amounts of pollution
  • D Causes more illnesses

12 Rapid Urbanization

  • A large numbers of people move to cities
  • B Overcrowding in houses and on streets
  • C ​Tenant buildings built to try and fit more people
  • ​D Crowded and unsanitary conditions lead to outbreaks of illness
  • E ​Tons of people burning fires for work, heat, and cooking in a small place = pollution
  • J Innovations reduce the number of farm workers required
  • K Many paid farm workers and share croppers move to the city and get factory jobs
  • I ​Mechanical Reaper: Cyrus McCormick 1831: Cuts down crops previously done by a worker with a scythe

10 Canals

  • A Man made waterways that connect natural bodies of water to allow continued boat transportation
  • B 1825 Erie Canal (Albany to Buffalo NY) essentially connects New York City with the Great Lakes and the mid west via the Hudson River, 425 miles

9 Steam Locomotive 1814

  • A George Stephenson
  • B Massive amounts of goods can be transported
  • C Over land not dependent on waterways
  • D Allows easier development away from rivers and oceans
  • ​E The construction of the rail roads impacted the environment by moving tons of rock and earth to get through the mountains

8 Steamboat 1807

  • A Robert Fulton puts a steam engine on a boat to power a paddle wheel and propel the boat
  • ​B Tons of goods can be transported easily, up river, and long distances

7 Transportation

  • A Advancements in transportation allow goods to be taken further away faster and in greater numbers
  • B This opens more markets = more demand= more sales = more profit = more factories
  • C National market for goods

6 Steam Power

  • A The new source of steam power contributed greatly to the expansion of the U.S.
  • B Water wheel and animal driven mill eventually replaced with steam powered engines

5 Eli Whitney

  • A Interchangeable Parts
  • B allows for mass production in factories

4 Samuel Slater

  • A Brings first water powered factory to America

3 Bessemer Steel Process

  • A Blow air into molten steel to remove impurities
  • B Allows steel to be produced faster and cheaper
  • C Allows America to build large steel framed buildings, bridges and ships

2 Factory System

  • A Mass production of goods in factories
  • B Machines instead of human hands
  • C Factories and industry developed mainly in the North
  • D Factories offered low skilled easy to obtain jobs
  • ​E Growth of factories starts with War of 1812 and America's need to produce their own goods

1 Industrialization

  • A A change from a farming based economy to a manufacturing economy
  • B ​Farming to Factories
  • ​C Growth of Cities as many people move to cities
  • D New opportunities for women because jobs provide independence and income


18 European Immigrants

  • Irish, Scottish, Italian, and German immigrants move to mostly large cities in Northeast
  • Get jobs in factories

17 Immigration

  • Pull factors- reasons why people go to the new country
  • ​Plentiful and cheap land, religious and political freedoms, economic opportunities, low skill factory jobs

15 Limited Government Intervention

  • A Laissez-Faire Policies - Government stays out of business practices and standards
  • B ​A largely unregulated market for industry
  • C Pros- Free market system (capitalism) allows people to fail or succeed on their own; leads to greater innovation
  • D Cons- Owners make all the profit, workers got low wages and dangerous conditions
  • ​E A lack of regulations on business encouraged the growth of business

14 Communication Advancements

  • A Telegraph: Samuel Morse 1844: Allows messages to be sent over great distances in a very short time
  • B Allows orders to be placed for products from far away markets
  • C Pre-telephone technology: Communicates with Morse Code
  • H Steel Plow: John Deere 1837: breaks up tough soil that damaged wood plows

To Know Who You Are and who you want to be

19 Asian Immigrants

  • Chinese, Japanese, and Korean immigrants move to America’s west coast.
  • ​Work in mines and on railroads

16 Immigration

  • Push factors- reasons why people leave their home country
  • Over crowding, famine, industrialization, political and religious persecution

11 Agricultural Innovations

  • A Cotton Gin: Eli Whitney 1794: Machine that separates cotton seeds from the ball of cotton
  • B Patent issued by Thomas Jefferson
  • C The invention of the Cotton Gin makes the production of        cotton faster and easier.  
  • D Plantations increase their slaves and their cotton crops to make even more cotton and more profit
  • ​​E Textile factories in the North needed more cotton
  • F More people get in the plantation game because of the easy profit available from cotton
  • G Steam powered boats moving crops improved agricultural production