The Arts

  • Major themes: Nature as well as American conflicts and connections with Nature
  • Walt Whitman: Poet, wrote "Leaves of Grass", Father of American Free Verse
  • ​James Audubon: Drew detailed pictures of birds, Studied by naturalists and scientists to learn more about birds
  • Mark Twain: writings showed pre-Civil War culture by reflecting the food and language of Southern Culture
  • Hudson River School: Painted landscapes

2nd Great Awakening

  • Religious Revival
  • People gathered in large numbers for worship and to listen to preachers
  • ​Highlighted growing social and regional differences

Women's Rights

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton- Leader
  • Declaration of Sentiments - Written by ECS argues for women's rights
  • Seneca Falls - First rally to discuss women's rights
  • limited support and success
  • ​Other leaders - Susan B Anthony and Lucretia Mott
  • Want right to vote and more education (college)

Workers Rights

  • Require factories to provide safe working environments
  • ​Minimum wages
  • Maximum working hours
  • Maximum days of work per week
  • Little support until Triangle Shirt Waist Factory Fire kills 145

Temperance Movement

  • Discouraged the making, selling, and drinking of alcohol 
  • ​Supported by women, church groups, and business owners

Social Reform Movements

and The Arts

To Know Who You Are and who you want to be

Care for Disabled Reforms

  • Dorthea Dix
  • Built new Hospitals for the Mentally ill, Deaf, and Blind
  • ​Prisons shift toward rehabilitation

Education Reform

  • Horace Mann 
  • Common School Movement
  • leads to Free Public Education